I ran into a lot of trouble getting this set up! Finally, everything fell into place.

While planning out a Sinatra app for a new project, I decided to use ActiveRecord to handle my data storage.

Adding ActiveRecord to your Sinatra app

Thankfully, there’s the very helpful sinatra-activerecord gem. While we’re at it, we’ll add the sqlite3 gem:

``` ruby Gemfile gem ‘sinatra-activerecord’ gem ‘sqlite3’

Having done this, we can establish a database connection in our Sinatra app.

```ruby app.rb
require 'sinatra/activerecord'

  adapter: 'sqlite3',
  database:  'db.sqlite3'

Great! Now we can add those lovely active-record Rake tasks into our Rakefile:

``` ruby Rakefile require ‘sinatra/activerecord/rake’

Make sure to require your Sinatra app to get the database connection

require ‘./app’

If we run `rake -T`, we'll now see a plethora of new rake tasks, all database-related:

``` ruby
rake db:create              # Creates the database from DATABASE_URL or config/database.yml for the current RAILS_ENV (use db:create:all to create all databases in the config)
rake db:create_migration    # Create a migration (parameters: NAME, VERSION)
rake db:drop                # Drops the database from DATABASE_URL or config/database.yml for the current RAILS_ENV (use db:drop:all to drop all databases in the config)
rake db:fixtures:load       # Load fixtures into the current environment's database
rake db:migrate             # Migrate the database (options: VERSION=x, VERBOSE=false, SCOPE=blog)
rake db:migrate:status      # Display status of migrations
rake db:rollback            # Rolls the schema back to the previous version (specify steps w/ STEP=n)
rake db:schema:cache:clear  # Clear a db/schema_cache.dump file
rake db:schema:cache:dump   # Create a db/schema_cache.dump file
rake db:schema:dump         # Create a db/schema.rb file that is portable against any DB supported by AR
rake db:schema:load         # Load a schema.rb file into the database
rake db:seed                # Load the seed data from db/seeds.rb
rake db:setup               # Create the database, load the schema, and initialize with the seed data (use db:reset to also drop the database first)
rake db:structure:dump      # Dump the database structure to db/structure.sql
rake db:structure:load      # Recreate the databases from the structure.sql file
rake db:version             # Retrieves the current schema version number

Creating an ActiveRecord migration and model

Great! Let’s create our migration to add a User model:

rake db:create_migration NAME=create_users_table

Just like in rails, this command will create the db/migrate folder and inside it a migration file. Here, we can write up our migration:

```ruby create_users_table.rb class CreateUsersTable < ActiveRecord::Migration

# Run with `rake db:migrate`   def up
create_table :users do |table|
  table.string :username
  table.string :password
end   end

# Run with `rake db:rollback`   def down
drop_table :users   end end ```

Running rake db:migrate will get our database and Users table up and good to go.

Now we can add our ActiveRecord model for a User:

```ruby models/user.rb class User < ActiveRecord::Base end

*This next part is vital.* You need to establish the connection to the database before requiring the model in the Sinatra app:

```ruby app.rb
  adapter: 'sqlite3',
  database:  'db.sqlite3'

require_relative './models/user'

Doing otherwise requires you to re-establish the database connection for the user model.

Testing your ActiveRecord model with Shoulda matchers

I want to add some validations to my User model, namely, enforcing the presence of the username and password fields. We also want each user to have a unique username.

I’ll test this using RSpec and shoulda-matchers:

```ruby Gemfile group :test do gem ‘rspec’ gem ‘shoulda-matchers’ end

When you set up your `spec_helper` file, it's very important to require the Sinatra app before the test gems:

```ruby ./spec_helper.rb
require File.expand_path '../../app', __FILE__
require 'rspec'
require 'rack/test'
require 'sinatra'
require 'shoulda/matchers'

We’re now ready to test our User model. Don’t forget to require your spec_helper:

```ruby ./spec/models/user_spec.rb describe User do it { is_expected.to validate_presence_of(:username) } it { is_expected.to validate_uniqueness_of(:username) } it { is_expected.to validate_presence_of(:password) } end

Running these will, of course, fail. So let's implement these validations!

```ruby ./models/user.rb
  validates :username, :password, presence: true
  validates_uniqueness_of :password

That about does it! We can now use rails-like models and validation tests in our Sinatra app.

I hope this is helpful. It took me forever to get it working!